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Quantum Flavordynamics (Weak Nuclear Force)

  • This is basically the decay of a neutron into a proton by the emission of a W- boson.
  • The up and down part of quarks is known as their flavour, they can effectively change flavours, in this case it is a down quark into an up quark.
  • The W- has to be emitted for the flavour of the quark to change but it does not last long until it decays into an electron (e-) and an anti-electron neutrino (ν
    e )
    .
  • The W- boson (80GeV) is roughly 80x heavier than the neutron (1GeV) it decayed from meaning that it takes a lot of energy for this to happen so is seen happening inside stars which is basically just a big burning ball of protons.
  • The energy for this change can also be borrowed from the vacuum provided the energy is paid back, to do this we refer to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle:

ΔE x Δt<h

(amount of energy borrowed from vacuum) x (amount of time borrowed for) < Plancks constant 

  • This shows that the energy debt has to be paid back in 1e-25 seconds in which time the W- boson can move the distance of part a proton before it decays.
  • This process is represented by the special unitary matrix two dimensional su(2) in mathematics. It is 2D because it is only changing ups and downs.

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    Decaimento de nêutrons em prótons 😉
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    I only took notice of the pretty colours :’)
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